The History of Coffee By: Burnell Roques IV
Axum Trading Marketing Intelligence
Prepared by Burnell Roques
- Key Selling Points
- 1. Ethiopian coffee is widely regarded as being the best in the world.
- 2. Ethiopian wild forest coffee is the genetic root of all coffee.
- 3. Our coffee is 100% USDA organic certified green coffee bean
- 4. The Kaffa region is where the legend of
Kaldi, the goat herder who discovered coffee originates.
- 5. Our coffee is the genetic root of “Arabica” coffee, the higher quality
coffee in the world.
- 6. Our coffee comes from the “Garden of Eden,” and is older than humanity itself.
- 7. Our coffee is “shade grown.”
- 8. Our coffee comes from the last 2,000 sq km of Ethiopian forest that produces naturally growing wild coffee bean (endangered forests)
- 9. Organic coffee is harvested in a method that preserves the forest and the environment. (chemicals destroy the forest)
- 10. Our farmers can produce “wet processed” coffee which is the
preferred by most consumers over sun-dried coffee.
- 11. Only 15%-20% of Ethiopian coffee is wet-processed.
- Important Coffee Facts
- A. Our Coffee
- 1. Forest Coffee
- 2. USDA certified 100% organic green coffee beans.
- 3. Kaffa region is the region where the name “Coffee” is derived, and the famous legend of Kaldi (from Kaffa,) the goat herder boy who discovers coffee originates.
- 4. Arabs took Ethiopian coffee and planted it in Yemen where they harvested it and sold it to European and Asian markets, which is the reason why originally Ethiopian coffee is today called “Arabica” coffee.
- 5. Kaffa region is less than 100 miles from the site where the oldest human remains on earth are found, estimated to be
195,000 years old.
- 6. Our coffee is from “The Garden of Eden.”
- Ethiopian Forest Coffee
- 1. Ethiopia is the birthplace of coffee.
- 2. Naturally growing Ethiopian coffee is the worldwide origin of the Coffee Arabica gene-pool. All coffee in the world can trace their heritage to South Western Ethiopia.
- 3. Coffee is originally an indigenous shrub in Ethiopia, and is harvested from forests and farmland where it’s grown in small patches under isolated shade trees.
- 4. Coffee grows as the understory shrubbery of the forest canopy in
- 5. Forest coffee grows wild (naturally without planting, fertilizing, etc.)
- 6. “Genetically, Ethiopia has the most diversified of coffee types — there are thousands. We have not utilized all of them; we’ve just scratched the surface of our genetic base.”
- C. Coffee Arabica
- 1. Coffee is manufactured from green coffee beans that are roasted in order to give it its characteristic color, smell, flavor and density.
- 2. Coffee is manufactured from two major varieties of coffee beans- Arabica and Robusta – which have many different variations,
each with their own unique attributes.
- 3. The Arabica blend generally tends to have a richer flavor and is considered to be of higher quality and is found in the majority of gourmet and imported coffees such as Colombian, Ethiopian, Kenyan, Costa Rican and more.
- 4. Coffea arabica originates in and still grows wild in Ethiopia in areas which are included in the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity hotspot. This hotspot — which also covers areas in the coffee- growing regions of Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi — has
been reduced to 10% of its original extent.
- 5. In Ethiopia, only about 2000 sq km of high-quality forest with wild arabica coffee remain
- 6. Comparatively, the Robusta blend is considered to be of lower
quality and is used in most instant, soluble and canned coffee products sold in supermarkets and grocery stores.
- Organic Coffee
- 1. Coffee is the heaviest chemically treated food commodity in the world. The most common chemical used in coffee production is
synthetic petroleum based fertilizers which slowly destroy the soil’s fertility and seep into local water supplies.
- 2. Coffee trees do not naturally grow in direct sunlight, but under
the shade of dense rainforest. To increase productivity, the coffee industry has developed sun-resistant coffee tree hybrids that have come to comprise approximately 70% of the world’s coffee production. As a result rainforest is being cleared at alarming rates to make room for new, sun resistant coffee trees.
- 3. “Shade Grown” coffee is a new buzz word in the coffee industry
and is an attempt to reproduce the naturally occurring effects of the Ethiopian forest canopy.
- 4. Naturally occurring forest coffee (our coffee) must necessarily be shade grown, as all truly natural coffee must be.
- E. Fair Trade Certification
- 1. Fair Trade (FTO) certification is an attempt to ensure that coffee farmers and their workers are getting properly compensated for their coffee.
- 2. Coffee farmers on average receive about 1 penny per cup of $3 coffee that is sold in retail store
- 3. Fair trade coffee has become increasingly popular over the last ten years, and is now offered at a significant number of coffee retailers worldwide.
- History/Legend of Coffee
In the Ethiopian highlands, where the legend of Kaldi, the goatherd, originated, coffee trees grow today as they have for centuries. Though we will never know with certainty, there probably is some truth to the Kaldi legend.
It is said that he discovered coffee after noticing that his goats, upon eating berries from a certain tree, became so spirited that they did not want to sleep at night.
Kaldi dutifully reported his findings to the abbot of the local monastery who made a drink with the berries and discovered that it kept him alert for the long hours of evening prayer. Soon the abbot had shared his discovery with the other monks at the monastery,
and ever so slowly knowledge of the energizing effects of the berries began to spread. As word moved east and coffee reached the Arabian peninsula, it began a journey which would spread its reputation across the globe.
Today coffee is grown in a multitude of countries around the world. Whether it is Asia or Africa, Central or South America, the islands of the Caribbean or Pacific, all can trace their heritage to the trees in the ancient coffee forests on the Ethiopian plateau. http://www.ncausa.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=68
Kaldi and the dancing goat
Our plan is to utilize the legend, name, and imagery of Kaldi the famous goat herder and his dancing goats in various aspects of our marketing strategy.
Ethiopian coffee: The best in the world?
- Ethiopia is the undisputed birthplace of Arabica coffee.
- b. “Ethiopian coffee is well-known for its unique aroma, flavor and acidity.
These are characteristics which you don’t find in any other country.
- “Genetically, Ethiopia has the most diversified of coffee types — there are thousands. We have not utilized all of them; we’ve just scratched the surface of our genetic base.”
- d. Among the best-known varieties of Ethiopian coffee:
- 1. Harar: produced in the eastern highlands, at altitudes of 1,510 to 2,120 meters above sea level. The bean is medium in size, with a greenish-yellowish color. It has medium acidity and full body, and a distinctive mocha flavor. Harar is one of the highest premium coffees in the world.
- 2. Wollega (Nekempt): produced in western Ethiopi The medium-to-bold bean is mainly known for its fruity taste. It has a greenish-brownish color, with good acidity and body. Many
roasters put this flavor in their blends, though it can also be sold as an original gourmet or special-origin flavor.
- 3. Limu: known for its spicy and winey flavor, and particularly
popular in Europe and the United States. Produced at altitudes of
1,400 to 2,020 meters above sea level, it has good acidity and body, and the washed Limu is one of Ethiopia’s premium coffees. It has a medium-sized bean, and is greenish-bluish in color and mostly round in shape.
- 4. Sidamo: this variety, accounting for 30% of all Ethiopian coffee
production, has a medium-sized bean, greenish-grayish in color. Sidamo washed coffee, known for its balanced taste and good flavor, is called sweet coffee. It has fine acidity and good body, and is produced in southern Ethiopia, at altitudes of between
1,400 and 2,200 meters above sea level. It is always blended for gourmet or specialty coffee.
- 5. Yirgacheffee: this has an intense flavor known as flor The
washed Yirgacheffee is one of the best highland-grown coffees, grown at altitudes of between 1,770 and 2,000 meters above seea level. It has fine acidity and rich body. Many roasters are attracted to its delicate, fine flavor and are willing to pay a premium for it.
- e. Between 80% and 85% of the coffee Ethiopia exports is sun-dried,
while 15% to 20% is wet-processed coffee.
- Since consumer preference is for wet-processed coffee, Ethiopia intends to gradually increase its capacity for that kind of processing.
- g. Currently, there are more than 400 coffee-washing plants throughout the country, owned by cooperatives, former state enterprises and private companie
- h. At full capacity, these plants can produce about 52,000 tons of washed
coffee per year.
Ethiopian Coffee Types
- The history of coffee begins in ancient Ethiopia, where in the Kaffa region Arabica coffee originally grew wild.
- b. Coffee has therefore been an integral part of Ethiopian culture for
- Coffee is Ethiopia’s largest and most important export.
- d. Many connoisseurs consider Ethiopian coffee to be the best in the world.
- Coffee is the second most traded commodity in the world and one of the most highly valued items in international trade.
- b. USA in the world’s largest coffee consumer, drinking close to 3 billion pounds of coffee each year = 1/5 of the world’s coffee market.
- Coffee industry in USA valued at $19 billion each year, with gourmet coffees accounting for half of the USA industry value.
- d. A $3 cup of coffee typically only provides original farmer with an income of one penny.
- e. Roughly 20,000 coffee stores in the USA, and Starbucks owns roughly
2/3 of them (16,680).
- “Another newer coffee-crop trend driving up the international trade value and adding jobs to the economy is an extension of the world’s “green” or environment-friendly movement. New buzzwords for coffee sales include organic, shade-grown, sustainable and fair-trade certified. The organic coffee market has now become a billion-dollar industry in itself, according to the Organic Trade Association, due to consumers’ increasing desire to minimize their global footprint.”
- g. Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world, with 400 billion cups
being consumed every year.
- h. Americans consume an estimated 400 million cups of coffee daily.
Specialty coffee market getting hotter
- 49% of Americans 18 & older drink some type of coffee beverage daily, many from specialty coffee retailers.
- b. “The coffeehouse scene exploded about a decade ago, and became the destination de rigueur for social interaction.”
- “The consumer base has grown to appreciate good quality coffee. It’s
like fine wine–when you’ve had it, you don’t go back to drinking cheap
- d. “If you think there’s no room left for you to be a part of the specialty coffee market, think again. “We expect it to continue to grow,” says Fergu “Saturation must exist theoretically; we just don’t know what it looks like.”
- e. “People tend to drink coffee every day, whereas they eat hamburgers
maybe once a week,”
- Ferguson also believes specialty coffee consumption will move toward the homes, where high quality whole beans will become an important aspect, prompting retailers to begin roasting their own coffee onsite. “This is the way for retailers to differentiate themselves from the competition, to have a wider variety of freshly roasted coffee,”
- g. “estimates between 1,800 and 2,000 roaster retailers already exist,
but will soon grow in numbers. With specialty coffee’s continuing growth and diversity, neighborhoods will soon literally be able to wake up and smell the coffee.”
Coffee Production in the US: Market Research Report
- Estimates USA coffee industry to generate $10 billion revenue each year
- 5.2% annual growth from 2007 – 2012
- Spending on gourmet coffees and other factors will support industry growth over next 5 years
- d. Two major levels of beans – Arabica and Robusta, which both have
- e. Arabica blend generally tends to have a richer flavor and is considered to be of higher quality and is found in the majority of gourmet and imported coffees such as Colombian, Ethiopian, Kenyan, Costa Rican
- Robusta blend is considered to be of lower quality and is used in most instant, soluble and canned coffee products sold in supermarkets and grocery stores.
- g. This industry produces coffee, usually by purchasing coffee beans and subsequently processing them into roasted or ground coffee product
The industry excludes tea production and revenue from coffee made
on-premises, such as in a coffeehouse or cafe.
- Specialty coffee sales are increasing by 20% per year and account for nearly 8% of the 18 billion dollar U.S. coffee market.
- b. Coffee statistics show that among coffee drinkers the average
consumption in the United States is 3.1 cups of coffee per day.
- 50% of the population, equivalent to 150 million Americans, drink espresso, cappuccino, latte, or iced/cold coffees.
- d. Statistics show there will be approximately 50,000+ Coffee Shops by the year 2012.
- e. The average Espresso Drive-thru Business sells approximately 200-300
Cups of Espresso and Coffee Based Drinks per day.
- The United States imports in excess of $4 Billion worth of coffee per year.
- g. On an average, 250 Cups of espresso and coffee drinks are sold per day at almost any espresso drive-thru business with a great visible location. (500 cups per day is extraordinary.)
Coffee Statistics Report – 2012 Edition
- Only 20% of harvested coffee tends to be of a premium bean of the highest quality.
- b. Bach wrote a coffee cantata in 1732.
- In the year 1763, there were over 200 coffee shops in Venice d. Italy now has over 200,000 coffee bars, and still growing.
- e. The first commercial espresso machine was manufactured in Italy in
- Espresso is to Italy what champagne is to France. g. In Italy, coffee and espresso are synonymous.
Wikipedia: Coffee Market
- Due to organic coffee’s higher value (it has the greatest value of any organic import in North America) than that of conventional coffee, it only takes up approximately 3% in volume of North America’s coffee market, yet its piece of the market concerning value is slightly greater than that of conventional coffee.
- b. Organic coffee accounts for about one-third of all S. organic beverage sales (“The Market for Organic and Fair-Trade Coffee”). ^ “The Market For Organic and Fair-Trade Coffee.” Sept. 2009. Web. 30